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Health education sessions should = headcount plus community based health promotion gastritis diet òåëåïðîãðàììà cheap protonix 20 mg without a prescription. An individual patient interaction is not considered a health education session for this purpose gastritis erosive protonix 40 mg for sale. Health education register Look for a better indicator for health promoting activities gastritis what not to eat purchase protonix 20 mg amex. Common problems Actions to consider Other possible indicators Name Definition Calculation Nurse workload the number of patients seen per nurse per working day. Numerator: Denominator: Total headcount Nursing staff days worked Rationale this indicator is a useful way of calculating how hard staff in a facility, programme or district are working. This number varies according to the type of job the nurse is doing, but should be from 25-40. Attendance register and headcount If workload at the facility is high, managers should consider transferring staff from facilities with workload to that facility. Other non-nursing staff can be included in workload, e,g, clients per doctor, physiotherapist, social worker or any other health worker category. This is expected to average about 3 visits per person in the population each year. A low utilisation rate shows that the population is not using the services offered, and the cause of this non-use must be identified. Does the community have a poor health status and need frequent health service support, or are they perhaps being over-serviced Facility registers Any act of violence, particularly against women, is unacceptable and should involve community health fora, security services and community based organisations designed to help prevent violence and to protect women. Each patient is therefore connected through a seamless continuum of services and should arrive at the appropriate level capable of giving optimal health care for any given problem. This assures that the most common and often important measures are available nearest to home and convenient to each citizen. Through a smoothly functioning referral system, the patient can arrive at higher levels where more specialized medical professionals as well as diagnostic and therapeutic tools are available. Effective referral requires clear communication to assure that the patient receives optimal care at each level of the system. Because the patient is moving between facilities it is the role of the supervisor to assure that this movement is facilitated and that proper communication accompanies it in both directions: upward, describing the problem as seen at the lower level facility and requesting specific help and, importantly, information back to the lower level facility describing the findings, the actions to be taken and the follow up needed. The referral form is designed to facilitate communication in both directions although effective referral can occur with written communication on the patient held record or any other convenient paper. Every patient referred upwards should be accompanied by a written record of the findings, the questions asked, any treatment given and specific reasons for referral and expectations from the lower level facility.
Internalization of Biopsychosocial Values of Medical Students: A Test of SelfDetermination Theory gastritis symptoms depression 40 mg protonix overnight delivery. The Motivational Effects of the Classroom Environment in Facilitating Self-Regulated Learning gastritis diet mercola generic protonix 20mg without a prescription. In this paper gastritis diet ýõî order 40mg protonix, we are proposing an exercise for online undergraduate Organizational Behavior courses to motivate students and enhance their understanding of class concepts through the use of storytelling. In this exercise, students work in teams to narrate stories that describe with rich detail different concepts and theories pertaining to team management in general and virtual team management in particular. The results suggest that students develop a higher level of critical thinking in virtual team management by storytelling and develop strong relations with other members of their virtual teams. Key concepts: storytelling, online education, organizational behavior, virtual teams. Questions have been raised regarding the effectiveness of online courses in comparison with the delivery of these same courses in the classroom. Online students report lower levels of overall satisfaction with online courses and with the mode of instruction used in online courses. They rate their professors lower than in classroom settings, and express lower levels of interest in the subject matter when delivered online (Kartha, 2006). In the first part, we review recent literature to discuss the potential of storytelling as a teaching tool. Finally, we share some results of the exercise and their implications for student virtual team learning and engagement. In organizations, leaders use stories to convey their passion for their vision and inspire their followers (Guber, 2007). In addition to being a communication tool, storytelling can also be used, by integrating stories, to make sense of events and construct experiences (Gephart, 1991; Morgan & Dennehy, 2004), helping individuals manage their tacit knowledge and make it explicit (Ambrosini & Bowman, 2001). Shamir and Eilam (2005), for instance, explain the value of stories in the development of the authentic leader, who uses the narration of a personal story in making sense of who they are. Authentic leaders evaluate the importance of their different values and how those drive their behaviors throughout their lives by exploring and telling their personal story. Through the details of the story, students build a more coherent understanding of the complexities of a phenomenon. This dramatic story helps students develop a richer understanding of the different symptoms of this negative team dynamic. Thus, stories are selected, prepared, and shared by the professor to build the interest and enhance the understanding of students. Students can use narratives to make sense of personal or professional experiences, to bring meaning to class theories and concepts, and also to make the analysis more fun and memorable (Morgan & Dennehy, 2004). In the Storytellers Exercise, students create fictional stories to describe team dynamics and propose ways to effectively manage these dynamics. This exercise requires that students demonstrate both critical thinking and creativity, improves their 32 Academy of Educational Leadership Journal Volume 19, Number 1, 2015 understanding and recollection of the concepts studied, and motivates greater involvement and enjoyment from students. In our course, an initial story focused on groupthink, an important negative dynamic that affects decision-making quality in groups with high levels of cohesion. Story 1: A Story Of Groupthink In the first exercise, students were asked to create a story descriptive of a Groupthink dynamic (see Appendix A). The dynamics involved in Groupthink were discussed by Janis (1974) as a faulty decision-making process that occurs when team members censor their own ideas to avoid disagreeing with the group. In this excerpt, the team discusses potential causes for self-censorship and uses class material to suggest alternative team dynamics to address their problems of groupthink. During the meeting, Joe noticed that no one else was speaking up and giving their opinion unless it was to agree with his. He figured that was because they were young, inexperienced, and in a new situation they were probably afraid to speak up. Joe thought about what he should do for a while and decided the best way to solve this problem was for him to state the task at hand and let everyone else in the group say what they think before he gave his thoughts on it.
Reasoning that is similar to gastritis types generic 40mg protonix with mastercard that leading to gastritis liquid diet cheap protonix generic the conclusion that effort influences academic development applies to diet gastritis adalah buy discount protonix 40 mg other personality traits having effort associated with them. These findings were confirmed in a meta-analysis of twenty-eight investment traits described as ones reflecting "the tendency to seek out, engage in, enjoy, and continuously pursue opportunities for effortful cognitive activity" (von Stumm, Chamorro-Premuzic, & Ackerman, 2011, p. In sum, we conclude that these personality traits, related to crystalized intelligence, encompass a level of effort. Therefore, previous research findings indicate that effort contributes to the formation of crystalized intelligence that represents academic development. The importance of the current study is indicated by the influence that effort has on learning and the recent research indicating less effort being exhibited among college students. The need to increase student effort is suggested by a study of 3,000 college students enrolled over a four-year period in 29 four-year colleges and universities. Study findings show that students during a two-year period did not improve in their critical thinking, complex reasoning, and written communication skills (Arum, Roksa & Cho, 2011; Arum & Roksa, 2011). Many of them reported they "experience only limited academic demands and invest only limited effort in their academic endeavors" (Arum & Roksa, 2011, pg. The researchers recommend improving learning by giving students assignments that are more rigorous, thus necessitating greater student effort. This is clear after considering the recommendation for assignments that are more rigorous and research findings based on Investment Theory that suggest a relationship between student effort and academic development. Improving our understanding of how to increase the quality of student effort is a beneficial endeavor. We draw on two theoretical perspectives to identify factors that are likely to influence student effort: Achievement Goal Theory and Self-Determination Theory. The achievement goal theory proposes Mastery and Performance goal orientations as broad reasons for wanting to complete a task with each resulting in a different pattern of academic behavior (Ames 1992; Dweck & Leggett, 1988; Baranik, Stanley, Bynum & Lance, 2010) related to competence. With each orientation, an individual is likely to take an approach or avoidance reason for achieving competence (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). The Mastery Goal orientation exists when students are "oriented toward developing new skills, trying to understand their work, improving their level of competence, or achieving a sense of mastery based on self-referenced standards" (Ames, 1992, p. The students are motivated to learn, thus supporting the accomplishment of learning outcomes that instructors wish to achieve. When comparisons to selfreferenced standards are less than desirable, the student would adapt to improve understanding by spending more intense time and effort to achieve a higher level of mastery. The approach-avoidance 17 Academy of Educational Leadership Journal Volume 19, Number 1, 2015 distinction is illustrated by one student motivated to develop competence (a mastery-approach goal) while another adopts a mastery-avoidance goal by trying to avoid incompetence (Elliot & McGregor, 2001). The Performance Goal orientation exists when a student evaluates his or her competence by using the performance of others as a standard for comparison. When taking this orientation, learning activities are interpreted to be tests of their competence instead of pathways to achieve mastery of a subject. They compare their results to those of other students to determine if performance is adequate; one student may be motivated to outperform others (a performanceapproach goal) while another wants to avoid performing worse than others (a performanceavoidance goal). The students strive to show others that their knowledge is adequate; they avoid undertaking activities that may reveal inadequacies. Students with a performance goal orientation want to "prove their ability" whereas those taking a mastery goal orientation have the goal of "improving their ability" (Dweck & Leggett, 1988, p. A review of the literature revealed that competence and autonomy have been examined but with respect to the professor as a brand and how fulfilling them facilitates a feeling of attachment that a student has for a professor (Jillapalli & Wilcox, 2010). More recently, the influence of the three psychological needs has been studied with respect to student effort but not in tandem with both mastery and performance goal orientations (Pass & Neu, 2013). While striving to reach a goal, a student is likely to be motivated to satisfy these needs because their fulfillment provides a sense of well-being and satisfaction. Moreover, a student is more likely to sense a higher degree of self-determination; the student will be more intrinsically motivated and perceive control over decisions to undertake learning activities. Achievement mastery orientation, performance goal orientation, and the quality of student effort were previously described.